Category Offroad Driving


This is what the Institute of Advanced Motorists recommends for driving in snow and ice.

When driving in snow, get your speed right – not too fast so that you risk losing control, but not so slow that you risk losing momentum when you need it – and brake, steer and accelerate as smoothly as possible.

Start gently from stationary, avoiding high revs...

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Axle tramp… what is it?

Axle tramp is bump steer with torque.

A ‘tramping’ axle is more common with a leaf-sprung suspension than with independent or coil suspension, because the latter types have widely-based control arms or wishbones to control axle rotation. When you feed engine braking torque into an axle, the axle tries to rotate with the force that’s turning or stopping the wheels.

A leaf spring has to perfor...

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Axel Hop… Whats is it?

Axle hop is bump steer gone mad.

Axle hop is an uncontrolled movement of the axle, usually brought about by inadequate or ‘tired’ shock absorbers trying to cope with a series of bumps or corrugations. In cases of sever axle hop, the 4WD will ‘dance’ all over the road and become uncontrollable.

Bump steer, axle hop and axle tramp can be experienced virtually any 4WD if you push hard enough ...

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Bump Steer… What is it?

‘Bump steer’ is a term used by road testers, but often misunderstood by some of the people who use it – let alone readers to interpret it. Bump steer describes a steering effect caused by suspension movement as the vehicle passes over undulations.
Bump steer is often confused with axle hop or axle tramp.

The classic bump steer effect is noticed in leaf-sprung 4WDs, because a leaf spring is l...

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